Functionality of the Asterisk RealTime Database

Hi, I’m new to the world of Asterisk and I’m trying to understand how exactly Asterisk RealTime behaves.
So if I understood correctly to deal with vanilla Asterisk config files you need to actually modify the files, while with realtime you work on them as if you were working on a database.
But what does this database do afterworks when Asterisk is actually working?
Example: I want to call some extension so Asterisk needs to read all the data related to it.

Vanilla Asterisk would just read the config files and find the needed data, but what about Asterisk RealTime? Does it get the entire config files from the database and then reads them like vanilla or does it directly make queries to the database to get the precise information (for example the target extension of this call I made)?

Realtime can be configured in either way. Either the “files” are stored in the database and pulled only at load/reload time, or some modules can be configured to pull information as it is needed/requested.

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So a module instead of pulling the entire .conf and then reading them instead pulls from the database only the needed attributes?

Yes. They do specific queries for the objects they need when needed.