This will depend on how Asterisk was compiled. E.g. Asterisk will run on the ARM instruction set variant used by the Rspberry Pi, but a version compiled for Intel 32 bit machines won't. How did you create or obtain the binary?
If you compiled it yourself, please note hat some virtual machine environments mis-declare the processor capabilities, so code compiled on the same machine may fail.. There are compiler options that ensure that more generic code is produced. These have been mentioned here, but I forget the details. Are you trying to run on a VM?