Two channels into Asterisk, one for in, one for outbound?

Is it possible for an endpoint to simultaneously be using two channels into Asterisk, one for audio to the endpoint and one for audio from the endpoint, so in and outbound audio are flowing on two different channels?

There’s nothing built into Asterisk itself to split such a thing. It’s generally expected that a channel carries media in both directions, and any functionality to do otherwise would be a property of that channel driver itself and how it is used.

With a channel with audio in both directions, is there then a way to hook into the audio one directional, so e.g. to extract or bridge only outgoing audio by using the stream applications in FreePBX 15 or the /channels/externalMedia REST interface that was recently introduced or some other way?

Endpoints representing service providers carry multiple channels as a matter of course. Multi-line phones (normal for VoIP) phones can have multiple sessions for the same endpoint, and, in particular, do so during typical attended transfers. They would normally put the media, on all but one, on hold in both directions, but there is nothing that requires this.

Service providers don’t know that two channels are related, and, as noted, phones tend to put all but one on hold.

This is not a place where details of any version of FreePBX can be assumed to be known. I certainly don’t know them.

I don’t speak FreePBX, but Asterisk provides the ChanSpy dialplan application that can be used with the ‘o’ option to receive media only going to the channel. The Snoop functionality in ARI also allows specifying a direction to snoop on as well.

Sorry, I meant to say Asterisk 15, not FreePBX.

Streams are an internal API thing, they aren’t exposed as applications or anything.

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